- All papers must include an abstract. Even our editorials have an (unstructured) abstract, sometimes only 2-3 sentences long.
- The abstract for an original paper, systematic review, protocol, or consensus paper must not exceed 450 words and must be structured, using the following sections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusions.
- Proposals, comments, tutorials, reviews, and other types of papers may contain an unstructured abstract (maximum 500 words).
- For papers where the results are not yet known, such as protocols, include a very short Results section outlining the current status of the project (eg, if the study is recruiting participants or underway, and the anticipated completion date).
- Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) require a trial registration number in the abstract, as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). If there is no Trial Registration section in the abstract for an RCT, the copyeditor or editor should query the author. If the trial was not registered, authors are asked to provide an explanation (in the Methods section, somewhere close to ethics approval). See section below on trial registration for more information.
- See What are the article types for JMIR journals? for more information on the type of abstract your paper needs.
- Content-wise, an abstract should stand on its own. Therefore, abbreviations and terms introduced in the abstract must be reintroduced in the main text.
- Abstracts never have references. If there are references in the abstract, the editor should point this out to the author before acceptance. References in the abstract could lead to misnumbered references and very time-consuming work for the production team.
- Please do not include hyperlinks in the abstract (including Trial Registration section). Provide URLs only and remove hyperlink if present.
Background: The Internet is a useful...
Objective: The objective of our study was to...
Methods: Patients were recruited during visits to...
Results: A total of 432 patients participated...
Conclusions: As shown by the responses to the...
Trial Registration: [See below]
Trial Registration Numbers in abstracts
If a paper is a Randomized Controlled Trial (and referred to as such in the title), then it must have a Trial Registration number in the abstract and also in the manuscript body. A protocol for an RCT may also include a trial registration number if it has been registered.
How to format the trial registrations in the abstract
International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 14881571; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN14881571/14881571.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00102401; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00102401.
Note: Please remove hyperlinks from URL included in the trial registration.