The term "registered report" was first coined by the Center for Open Science, and refers to the publication of a research article that is published in two stages:
- Publication of a peer-reviewed research protocol (a stage 1 Registered Report, or RR1). At JMIR Publications, protocols (RR1s) are published in JMIR Research Protocols, which guarantees the subsequent acceptance of papers containing results of the protocol (see below) in any JMIR Publications journal, independently of whether the results research turns out to be negative.
- Publication of a peer-reviewed research paper containing the protocol's results (a stage 2 Registered Report, or RR2).
Registered Reports are important because they enhance transparency and reduce publication bias. For further information on Registered Reports see Registered Report (Center for Open Science).
At JMIR Publications, Registered Reports (both RR1 and RR2 papers) are given a persistent identifier called an IRRID (International Registered Report Identifier), the purpose of which is to further enhance transparency by providing a machine- and human-readable mechanism for associating RR2s to RR1s. For more information, see What is an International Registered Report?
RR1's (or protocols) have sometimes the PRE or DE qualifier :
PRE-registered: The protocol was published before any data were collected or available
DE = Data existing: The protocol was published when the data were already collected (if enrolment of participants has started, then this is considered DE)
If the results paper (RR2) is known, then these logos link to them.